The growth of ecommerce volumes in India is attracting the attention of players around the globe. India, the second most populous country in the world, is home to 1.2 billion people.
To put that number into perspective, consider this: the combined populations of Germany, UK, France, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, and Greece equal one-fourth the population of India alone! Despite lower per-capita purchasing power, this still makes India one of the most attractive emerging markets for ecommerce. But India is far from being a bed of roses. Here are the top 8 challenges that ecommerce businesses face in India.
1. Indian customers return much of the merchandise they purchase online
Ecommerce in India has many first time buyers. This means that they have not yet made up their mind about what to expect from ecommerce websites. As a result, buyers sometimes fall prey to hard sell. But by the time the product is delivered, they demonstrate remorse and return the goods. Though consumer remorse is a global problem, it is all the more prevalent in a country like India, where much of the growth comes from new buyers.
Returns are expensive for ecommerce players, as reverse logistics presents unique challenges. This becomes all the more complex in cross-border ecommerce.
2. Cash on delivery is the preferred payment mode
Low credit card penetration and low trust in online transactions has led to cash on delivery being the preferred payment option in India. Unlike electronic payments, manual cash collection is laborious, risky, and expensive.
3. Payment gateways have a high failure rate
As if the preference for cash on delivery was not bad enough, Indian payment gateways have an unusually high failure rate by global standards. Ecommerce companies using Indian payment gateways are losing out on business, as several customers do not reattempt payment after a transaction fails.
4. Internet penetration is low
Internet penetration in India is still a small fraction of what you would find in several western countries. On top of that, the quality of connectivity is poor in several regions. But both these problems are fast disappearing. The day is not far when connectivity issues would not feature in a list of challenges to ecommerce in India.
5. Feature phones still rule the roost
Though the total number of mobile phone users in India is very high, a significant majority still use feature phones, not smartphones. So, for all practical purposes this consumer group is unable to make ecommerce purchases on the move. Though we are still a couple of years away from the scales tipping in favor of smartphones, the rapid downward spiral in the price of entry-level smartphones is an encouraging sign. I expect that the next few quarters will witness announcements of new smartphones in India at the $30-40 price point. That should spur growth in smartphone ownership.
6. Postal addresses are not standardized
If you place an online order in India, you will quite likely get a call from the logistics company to ask you about your exact location. Clearly your address is not enough. This is because there is little standardization in the way postal addresses are written. Last mile issues add to ecommerce logistics problems.
7. Logistics is a problem in thousands of Indian town
The logistics challenge in India is not just about the lack of standardization in postal addresses. Given the large size of the country, there are thousands of towns that are not easily accessible. Metropolitan cities and other major urban centers have a fairly robust logistics infrastructure. But since the real charm of the Indian market lies in its large population, absence of seamless access to a significant proportion of prospective customers is a dampener. The problem with logistics is compounded by the fact that cash on delivery is the preferred payment option in India. International logistics providers, private Indian companies, and the government-owned postal services are making a valiant effort to solve the logistics problem. If someone could convert the sheer size of the problem into an opportunity, we might soon hear of a great success story coming out of the Indian logistics industry.
8. Overfunded competitors are driving up cost of customer acquisition
The vibrancy in the Indian startup ecosystem over the past couple of years has channeled a lot of investment into the ecommerce sector. The long-term prospects for ecommerce companies are so exciting that some investors are willing to spend irrationally high amounts of money to acquire market share today. Naturally the Indian consumer is spoiled for choice. However, this trend has reversed as investors are getting worried about slipping further down a slippery slope, and I expect more rational behavior in 2014.
While this article focuses on ecommerce challenges in India, an intrinsically one-sided topic, it is important to note that ecommerce giants are increasingly attracted to India. Cross-border ecommerce to India is growing, and many large international players are also making a significant investment in setting up shop in India.
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